CURRENT AFFAIRS – 25/04/2024

CURRENT AFFAIRS – 25/04/2024

CURRENT AFFAIRS – 25/04/2024

Asia worst hit by disasters in 2023

(General Studies- Paper III0

Source : the Indian Express

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recently released its ‘State of the Climate in Asia 2023’ report, highlighting the significant impact of extreme weather, climate, and water-related hazards on the region.

Key Highlights

  • Impact and Casualties
    • In 2023, Asia bore the brunt of 79 disaster events, affecting over nine million individuals and causing the direct loss of more than 2,000 lives.
    • These disasters primarily comprised floods and storms, which accounted for over 80% of reported hydrometeorological hazards.
    • Mortality and Damage
      • The report revealed that over 60% of the deaths attributable to these disasters were linked to flooding, while approximately 15% were associated with storms.
      • Furthermore, storms emerged as the primary source of economic damage during the year.
    • Comparison with Previous Years
      • While the number of reported disaster events in 2023 decreased slightly compared to 2022, the overall impact was less severe.
      • Notably, the devastating 2022 Pakistan floods, which affected over 30 million people, skewed the comparison.
      • However, India experienced a range of extreme weather phenomena, including heatwaves, floods, glacial lake outbursts, and tropical cyclones.
    • Climate Trends
      • The report underscored the accelerated warming of Asia, surpassing the global average, with the rate of warming nearly doubling since the 1961-1990 period.
      • This trend has significant implications for the region’s economy and ecosystems.
      • Many countries in Asia witnessed record-breaking temperatures in 2023, accompanied by a barrage of extreme events such as droughts, heatwaves, floods, and storms.
      • Climate change has exacerbated the frequency and severity of these events, profoundly affecting societies, economies, and the environment.
    • Impact of Severe Heatwaves
      • In April and June 2023, severe heatwaves swept through parts of India, resulting in approximately 110 deaths attributed to heatstroke.
      • Particularly affected were the Ballia and Deoria districts in Uttar Pradesh, where over 100 fatalities occurred, mainly among senior citizens with underlying health conditions.
      • Temperatures soared to 42-43 degrees Celsius in these regions, exacerbating the heat-related fatalities.
      • Heatwave Extending Across Southeast Asia
        • A prolonged heatwave also gripped much of Southeast Asia during April and May, extending westwards into Bangladesh, eastern India, and parts of China.
        • The widespread heatwave added to the challenges faced by communities already grappling with climatic extremes.
      • Flood Events in India
        • In August 2023, flood events wreaked havoc in India, particularly affecting Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, resulting in 25 deaths and substantial damage to infrastructure and agriculture.
        • Triggered by heavy rainfall, these floods compounded the effects of an earlier monsoon surge in June.
        • The severity of the situation prompted the Indian government to declare a state of emergency in the worst-affected areas, initiating rescue and relief efforts.
      • Tropical Cyclones in the Indian Subcontinent
        • The Indian subcontinent experienced the formation of six tropical cyclones in 2023, slightly above the average of 5.4 cyclones.
        • Four of these cyclones – Mocha, Hamoon, Midhili, and Michaung – originated over the Bay of Bengal, while Biparjoy and Tej formed over the Arabian Sea.
        • The extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha made landfall along the Rakhine Coast in Myanmar on May 14, claiming the lives of 156 people.
        • Michaung, another cyclone, made landfall in south Andhra Pradesh on December 5, resulting in 22 fatalities.
      • Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in Sikkim
        • The report highlighted a significant glacial lake outburst flood that occurred in South Lhonak Lake in Sikkim on October 4, 2023.
        • The incident led to the overtopping and breach of the Chungthang dam downstream on the Teesta River, resulting in over 40 fatalities, according to the Sikkim government.
        • The report attributed such disasters to climate change-induced glacier retreat, underscoring the compounding and cascading risks faced by vulnerable mountain communities.

About the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for promoting climatology, hydrology, and geophysics.
  • The WMO originated from the International Meteorological Organization, a nongovernmental organization founded in 1873 as a forum for exchanging weather data and research.
  • Proposals to reform the status and structure of the IMO culminated in the World Meteorological Convention of 1947, which formally established the World Meteorological Organization.
  • The Convention entered into force on 23 March 1950, and the following year the WMO began operations as an intergovernmental organization within the UN system.
  • The WMO is made up of 193 countries and territories, and facilitates the “free and unrestricted” exchange of data, information, and research between the respective meteorological and hydrological institutions of its members.
    • It also collaborates with nongovernmental partners and other international organizations on matters related to environmental climate change, resource management, and socioeconomic development.
  • The WMO is governed by the World Meteorological Congress, composed of member states, which meets every four years to set policies and priorities.
    • The Congress is led by an Executive Council led by the President, currently Abdulla Al Mandous of UAE.
    • The WMO Secretariat is an eight-department organization with a staff of 200 headed by a Secretary-General, who can serve a maximum of two four-year terms.
  • The WMO has a strategic plan that includes disaster risk reduction, the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS), the WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS), aviation meteorological services, polar and high mountain regions, capacity development, and governance.

What is ethylene oxide?

(General Studies- Paper II)

Source : The Indian Express

The Food Safety and Standards Authority India (FSSAI), the country’s top food regulator, has initiated an investigation into the safety of spice mixes available in the market.

  • Concerns have been raised about the presence of cancer-causing chemicals in these products, prompting FSSAI to request all states to collect samples for random testing.

Key Highlights

  • International Concerns Spark Investigation
    • Authorities in Hong Kong and Singapore took action after discovering high levels of the carcinogen ethylene oxide in spice mixes from two prominent Indian manufacturers, MDH and Everest.
    • Despite FSSAI’s prohibition of ethylene oxide in food products, its presence in exported goods has raised alarm.
  • Understanding Ethylene Oxide
    • Ethylene oxide serves as a pesticide and has earned a classification as a Group 1 carcinogen from the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
    • This classification is based on substantial evidence from human studies demonstrating its carcinogenic properties.
    • Industrial Use in Spice Industry
      • The spice industry employs ethylene oxide as a fumigant to combat microbial contamination, including harmful bacteria like E. coli and Salmonella.
      • Despite its effectiveness in killing pathogens, ethylene oxide’s carcinogenic nature raises concerns about its use in food processing.
      • Ethylene oxide poses significant health risks, primarily due to its ability to damage DNA during sterilization processes.
    • Chronic Exposure Risks
      • While occasional, low-level exposure to ethylene oxide may carry minimal risk, common household spices and blends often contain this harmful chemical.
      • Regular consumption of such products can result in chronic, persistent exposure over time.
      • Studies have linked prolonged exposure to ethylene oxide with an elevated risk of various cancers, including leukemia, stomach cancer, and breast cancer.
      • Additionally, respiratory irritation, lung injury, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and shortness of breath are among the potential health consequences.
    • Recommendations for Consumers
      • Consumers are advised to avoid products flagged for containing ethylene oxide entirely until brands undertake rigorous testing and implement remedies.
      • Instead, consumers should seek alternative spice sources with transparent safety profiles to mitigate the risk of exposure to this harmful substance.
    • International Bans on Ethylene Oxide
      • The European Union (EU) took decisive action in 2011 by banning the use of ethylene oxide for fumigation of food and animal feed during transport and storage.
      • Currently, the use of ethylene oxide is only permitted for disinfection and sterilization of medical devices, highlighting the severity of its health risks in food-related contexts.

About Ethylene Oxide

  • Ethylene oxide (EO), also known as oxirane, is a highly versatile and important organic compound used primarily as a chemical intermediate in various industrial processes.
  • Chemical Formula: C2H4O
  • Physical Properties:
    • Ethylene oxide is a colorless, flammable gas at room temperature and pressure.
    • It has a slightly sweet odor, and its odor threshold is relatively low, making it detectable at low concentrations.
    • It is highly reactive and soluble in water and organic solvents.
  • Uses and Applications:
    • Chemical Intermediates:
      • Ethylene oxide is a key intermediate in the synthesis of various chemicals, including ethylene glycol, which is used in the production of polyester fibers, antifreeze, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics.
    • Sterilization:
      • Ethylene oxide is widely used as a sterilizing agent for heat-sensitive medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and food products.
      • It is particularly effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
    • Surfactants and Emulsifiers:
      • Ethylene oxide is used in the production of surfactants and emulsifiers for use in detergents, personal care products, cosmetics, and industrial applications.
    • Polymerization:
      • Ethylene oxide can be polymerized to produce polyethylene oxide (PEO), which is used as a lubricant, binder, and thickening agent in various applications, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and industrial processes.
    • Health and Safety Considerations:
      • Toxicity:
        • Ethylene oxide is highly toxic and poses significant health risks to humans.
        • It is a known carcinogen, mutagen, and reproductive toxicant.
        • Chronic exposure to ethylene oxide has been associated with adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, neurotoxicity, and increased risk of cancer.
      • Flammability:
        • Ethylene oxide is highly flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air at certain concentrations.
        • Proper safety precautions, including ventilation, monitoring, and explosion-proof equipment, are essential when handling ethylene oxide.
      • Environmental Impact:
        • Ozone Depletion:
          • Ethylene oxide is a potent greenhouse gas with a high global warming potential (GWP).
          • It is also a significant contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion.

The Indian seafarer deserves better in choppy high seas

(General Studies- Paper II)

Source : The Hindu

India has presented three papers to the 111th Session of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Legal Committee (LEG), emphasizing the urgent need for addressing safety concerns among Indian seafarers.

  • These submissions tackle crucial issues such as seafarers’ security, contract terms, and broader maritime security challenges.
  • India advocates for a comprehensive approach to maritime security and calls for improved contractual conditions for seafarers.
  • While acknowledging the IMO’s efforts, India urges broader international cooperation to combat various maritime threats, including piracy, armed robbery, extremist attacks, regional conflicts, and emerging risks like drone attacks and the use of maritime weapons.

Key Highlights

  • Resurgence of Sea Piracy:
    • Recent pirate attacks off the coast of Somalia, targeting vessels like MV Ruen and MV Lila Norfolk, indicate a resurgence of piracy.
    • India stresses the importance of vigilance, proactive measures, and international cooperation in combating piracy and protecting seafarers, aligning with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
    • Over 200 cases of seafarer exploitation have been reported to the Indian Maritime Administration since 2020.
    • India urges international coordination to address these issues and ensure seafarers’ rights under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006.
  • Vulnerabilities of Indian Seafarers:
    • The maritime industry, crucial for global trade, heavily relies on seafarers who face numerous challenges and risks.
    • India, with 9.35% of global seafarers and ranking third globally, confronts these issues, evident from recent incidents such as the seizure of MSC Aries and the detention of MT Heroic Idun in Nigeria.
    • A survey reveals that a majority of Indian seafarers lack legal representation, feel unfairly treated, and are unaware of their rights.
    • Dangers Faced by Seafarers:
      • Incidents like the kidnapping of 20 Indian nationals from the MT Duke in the Gulf of Guinea and ship owners paying hefty ransoms underscore the dangers faced by seafarers.
      • The Maritime Union of India reported a 40% increase in kidnappings in the Gulf of Guinea three years ago, with 134 cases of assault, injury, and threats reported.
    • Growing Concerns over Maritime Piracy:
      • Indian seafarers, numbering around 250,000 globally, face growing threats from maritime piracy, with data showing a more than 10% increase in serious piracy incidents over the last 10 months.
      • Armed pirates boarding cargo ships endanger seafarers, highlighting the need for comprehensive solutions to address piracy, including land-based measures.
    • Exploitation by Iranian Shipping Companies:
      • Reports reveal exploitation of Indian seafarers by Iranian shipping companies, often through false promises of high salaries and opportunities in the Middle East.
      • Seafarers face overwork, insufficient food, and involvement in transporting illegal cargo, despite paying hefty fees for overseas jobs.
    • Launch of ‘Human Rights at Sea’ Initiative:
      • In response to reports of abuses against Indian seafarers, including illegal detentions and jailings in foreign countries, the Indian government and the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) initiated the ‘human rights at sea’ initiative.
      • This initiative aims to address violations and challenges faced by Indian seafarers, such as those stranded in foreign waters and subjected to illegal detentions.
      • Importance of Improved Rights and Protection:
        • Despite the risks, many Indian seafarers remain committed to their careers, emphasizing the need for improved rights and protection measures.
        • India aims to increase its share of the global seafaring population to 20% in the next 10 to 20 years, with ship management companies playing a crucial role.
      • Resilience During COVID-19 Pandemic:
        • Indian seafarers demonstrated resilience and professionalism during the COVID-19 pandemic, enhancing India’s reputation in the global maritime market.
        • The Ukraine-Russia conflict has also created opportunities for new players in the Indian maritime sector.
      • Heightened Safety Concerns and Need for Government Support:
        • Recent attacks on commercial ships have intensified safety concerns among Indian seafarers, with some contemplating leaving their jobs due to security fears.
        • This underscores the urgent need for government support and enhanced protection measures for seafarers.

About International Maritime Organization’s (IMO)

  • The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating maritime transport, with the aim of improving safety, security, and environmental protection.
  • Established in 1948, the IMO has its headquarters in London, United Kingdom, and currently has 176 Member States and three Associate Members.
  • The IMO’s primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping, covering various aspects such as safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical cooperation, maritime security, and the efficiency of shipping.
  • The organization is governed by an assembly of members that meets every two years, with a council of 40 members elected from the assembly responsible for administering its finance and organization.
    • The work of the IMO is conducted through five committees, which are supported by technical subcommittees.
    • The IMO has produced numerous conventions and codes covering a wide range of maritime issues, including safety, search and rescue, wreck removal, tonnage measurement, liability and compensation, ship recycling, the training and certification of seafarers, and piracy.
    • The organization has also increased its focus on smoke emissions from ships and has established the World Maritime University in Malmö, Sweden.
  • The IMO has a long history, with its origins dating back to the Safety of Life at Sea Convention (SOLAS) in 1914, which was updated in 1960 and 1974.
    • The organization was initially named the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) but was renamed to its current name in 1982.
  • The IMO has been actively working towards the 2030 Agenda and is contributing to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly in the areas of SDG 14 (life below water), SDG13 (climate change), SDG9 (industry, innovation and infrastructure), and SDG5 (gender equality).
  • The organization has also integrated the SDGs into its overall work and has developed maritime-specific indicator fact sheets to support Member States in their Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs).

About Maritime Labour Convention, 2006

  • The Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), 2006 is an International Labour Organization (ILO) convention that establishes minimum rights and standards for seafarers’ working and living conditions.
  • Adopted in 2006, the MLC consolidates and revises 37 existing ILO maritime labor conventions and recommendations, aiming to provide a comprehensive set of global standards for seafarers’ rights and fair competition for shipowners.
  • The MLC covers various aspects of seafarers’ employment, including minimum age, employment agreements, hours of work and rest, payment of wages, paid annual leave, repatriation, onboard medical care, recruitment and placement services, accommodation, food and catering, health and safety protection, and complaint procedures.
  • The MLC, 2006, applies to all ships of 500 gross tonnage and above that engage in international trade, as well as to all ships flying the flag of a state party, regardless of their size or trade.
  • The Convention entered into force on 20 August 2013, and as of August 2021, it has been ratified by 97 states representing over 91% of global shipping.

On the National Clean Air Programme

(General Studies- Paper III0

Source : the Hindu

Launched by the Indian government in 2019, the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) aims to reduce atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) concentration by 20-30% by 2024, initially, later revised to 40% by 2026.

  • Under NCAP, cities failing to meet annual PM levels must develop and implement Clean Air Action Plans (CAAPs), supported by allocated funds from the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change.

Key Highlights

  • Challenges in NCAP Implementation:
  • While most cities have submitted CAAPs, their implementation faces hurdles, leading to inconsistent progress.
  • Utilization of allocated funds averages only 60%, with some cities, like Visakhapatnam and Bengaluru, spending negligible amounts.
  • Implementation delays stem from bureaucratic processes, lack of standard operating procedures, and doubts about mitigation measures’ effectiveness.
  • Importance of Scientific Tools:
    • Scientific tools such as Emissions Inventory (EI), Air Quality (AQ) modelling, and Source Apportionment (SA) play crucial roles in addressing air pollution.
    • EIs identify local pollution sources and forecast future emissions, aiding in targeted control strategies.
    • SA studies analyze contributions from various sources but face limitations in predictive analysis and differentiating between nearby and distant sources.
    • Role of AQ Modelling:
      • AQ modelling bridges gaps in EI and SA studies by informing pollution dispersion understanding, including from distant sources.
      • It enhances predictive capabilities and aids in developing effective pollution control measures.
    • Addressing Challenges and Enhancing NCAP’s Efficacy:
      • Overcoming challenges in NCAP implementation requires a systemic approach based on scientific tools like EI, SA, and AQ modelling.
      • Utilization of Scientific Data in City Planning:
        • Cities are encouraged to utilize Emissions Inventory (EI) and Source Apportionment (SA) data to identify specific air pollutants and develop targeted mitigation measures.
        • However, only 37% of cities have completed these studies, leaving many without a clear understanding of their pollution sources and reduction potentials.
      • Challenges with Concentration Data and Urban Air Quality Management:
        • The reliance on concentration data in the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) complicates urban air quality management, particularly with pollution from industries and sources outside city limits.
        • Many control measures focus solely on primary PM emissions, overlooking secondary pollutants.
        • Comprehensive strategies addressing both primary and secondary pollutants are needed.
      • Infrastructure and Decision-Support Systems:
        • NCAP aims to establish infrastructure for air quality forecasting, but only a few cities have implemented decision-support systems.
        • This infrastructure gap needs addressing to enhance NCAP’s effectiveness in managing air quality.
      • Requirements for NCAP Success:
        • Swift implementation on the ground is crucial for NCAP’s success.
        • Implementation agencies must streamline bureaucratic processes and adopt standardized technical evaluations.
        • Budgeting and time management are vital, as NCAP funding is tied to cities’ performance in reducing PM concentrations.

About National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

  • The National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) is a long-term, time-bound, national level strategy launched by the Central Government of India in 2019 to tackle the air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner.
  • The program aims to reduce particulate matter (PM10) levels by up to 40% or achieve national standards (60 micrograms per cubic meter) by 2025-26 in 131 targeted cities across 24 states, using 2017 as the base year for comparison.
  • Objectives:
    • Augmenting Air Quality Monitoring:
      • NCAP seeks to enhance and develop a robust ambient air quality monitoring network across the country to ensure comprehensive and reliable data collection.
    • Data Dissemination and Public Outreach:
      • The program aims to establish efficient data dissemination mechanisms and public outreach initiatives to facilitate timely measures for air pollution prevention and mitigation.
      • It also emphasizes inclusive public participation in both planning and implementation of government policies on air pollution.
    • Management Plan for Pollution Control:
      • NCAP intends to develop feasible management plans for the prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution, addressing sources of pollution and implementing effective control measures.
    • Implementation and Coverage:
      • NCAP is a mid-term, five-year action plan launched in 2019.
      • It targets 131 cities for improving air quality, including 123 Non-Attainment Cities (NACs) identified based on non-conformance to national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) over five consecutive years and million-plus cities (MPCs) identified by the 15th Finance Commission.
      • Out of the 42 MPCs, 34 cities overlap with NACs, resulting in a total of 131 cities (including both NACs and MPCs) being monitored under NCAP for air quality improvement.

Note: “PRANA” – Portal for Regulation of Air-pollution in Non-Attainment cities, is a portal for monitoring of implementation of National Clean Air Programme (NCAP). It will support tracking of physical as well as financial status of city air action plan implementation and disseminate information on air quality management efforts under NCAP to public.

Why the BJP candidate was declared winner in Surat?

(General Studies- Paper II)

Source : The Hindu

The nomination process for Lok Sabha elections is governed by Section 33 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 (RP Act).

  • Candidates must fulfill certain criteria, including being above 25 years of age and having proposers who are electors from the same constituency.
  • Recognized parties require one proposer, while unrecognised parties and independents need ten.
  • Candidates can file up to four nomination papers with different sets of proposers to ensure acceptance.

Key Highlights

  • Scrutiny of Nomination Papers by the Returning Officer:
    • Section 36 of the RP Act outlines the scrutiny process by the Returning Officer (RO).
    • Nomination papers cannot be rejected for minor defects, but signatures found not genuine are grounds for rejection.
  • Issue with Nomination Papers in the Surat Lok Sabha Constituency:
    • In the Surat Lok Sabha constituency, the Congress candidate, NileshKumbhani, filed three sets of nomination papers with his brother-in-law, nephew, and business partner as proposers.
    • However, objections were raised by a BJP worker alleging that the signatures were not genuine.
    • Affidavits from the proposers supported this claim.
    • As the proposers could not appear before the RO within the specified time for scrutiny, all three sets of nomination papers were rejected.
    • Rejection of Substitute Candidate’s Nomination:
      • The election rules allow for substitute candidates to be fielded by political parties if the original candidate’s nomination is rejected.
      • In this case, the Congress party nominated Suresh Padsala as a substitute candidate.
      • However, his nomination was also rejected for the same reason of alleged signature forgery.
      • With no valid nominations remaining, the BJP candidate, MukeshDalal, was declared elected unopposed.
    • Candidates Elected Unopposed in Lok Sabha Elections:
      • Throughout the history of Lok Sabha elections, there have been instances where candidates were elected unopposed, totaling at least 35 cases.
      • Most of these instances occurred in the early decades after India’s independence, with the last occurrence recorded in 2012.
      • Allegations and Legal Recourse:
        • In the current case, the Congress party alleges that the rejection of their candidate’s nomination papers was due to coercion of the proposers to retract their signatures.
        • To address this issue, the party has approached the Election Commission (EC), seeking to annul the decision of the Returning Officer (RO) and restart the election process.
      • Limited Jurisdiction of the Election Commission:
        • However, the likelihood of the EC acting on this request is low, as Article 329(b) of the Constitution, read with the Representation of the People Act (RP Act), stipulates that election matters can only be challenged through an election petition filed before the concerned High Court.
        • Improper rejection of nomination papers is one of the grounds for filing such a petition.
        • Legal Recourse:
          • Therefore, the available legal recourse for the Congress party is to file an election petition in the Gujarat High Court, challenging the rejection of their candidate’s nomination papers.
          • The RP Act mandates High Courts to endeavor to conclude such trials within six months, although this timeline has often not been adhered to in the past.

About the Election Commission of India and its election machinery

  • The Election Commission of India (ECI) is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering elections in India.
  • It was established on January 25, 1950, under Article 324 of the Indian Constitution.
  • The ECI is a three-member body consisting of one Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.
  • The Commission is headquartered at NirvachanSadan in New Delhi and is responsible for conducting elections to the offices of the President, Vice-President, Parliament, State Legislative Assemblies, and State Legislative Councils
  • Structure of the Election Commission:
    • Chief Election Commissioner (CEC):
      • The Election Commission is headed by the Chief Election Commissioner, who is appointed by the President of India.
      • The CEC is assisted by Election Commissioners, who are usually appointed alongside the CEC.
    • Election Commissioners:
      • In addition to the Chief Election Commissioner, the Election Commission can have up to two Election Commissioners.
      • Together, they form the decision-making body of the Election Commission.
    • Election Machinery:
      • Chief Electoral Officers (CEOs): Each state and union territory has a Chief Electoral Officer responsible for overseeing the conduct of elections in their respective jurisdictions.
      • District Election Officers (DEOs): DEOs are responsible for conducting elections at the district level. They coordinate with various government departments to ensure smooth conduct of elections.
      • Returning Officers (ROs): ROs are appointed for each constituency to oversee the nomination process, conduct polling, and declare election results.
      • Polling Officers: Polling officers are responsible for managing polling stations, verifying voter identities, and ensuring that polling is conducted smoothly.
      • Election Observers: The Election Commission appoints election observers to monitor the electoral process, ensure compliance with election laws, and report any irregularities.