Daily Current Affairs

  • CURRENT AFFAIRS – 01/12/2023

    CURRENT AFFAIRS – 01/12/2023

    Broadcast regulation 3.0, commissions and omissions

    (General Studies- Paper II) Source : TH
    The recent Broadcasting Services (Regulation) Bill, released in November by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB), marks the latest effort in a series of endeavors to regulate broadcasting comprehensively.
    • Previous attempts include the Broadcasting Services Regulation Bill in 2007 and the Broadcasting Bill of 1997, reflecting the evolving landscape of cable and satellite broadcasting in India.
      Key Highlights
    • Positive Propositions with Refinement Needs
      • The Bill mandates broadcasting network operators and broadcasters to maintain subscriber data records, subjected to periodic external audits—an international norm.
      • It seeks to establish a methodology for audience measurement and the sale of ratings data, introducing transparency to the cable and satellite television business.
      • Allowing private actors in terrestrial broadcasting aims to foster competition against Doordarshan.
      • However, concerns about potential concentration among large players need addressing.
    • Concerns and Apprehensions
      • While promoting transparency, the Bill lacks safeguards for subscriber and audience privacy in data collection practices.
      • The Bill expands the definition of broadcasting services to include Over-the-Top (OTT) content suppliers, raising jurisdictional issues with the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITy) and potentially impacting news outlets’ operations.
      • The broadened definition of broadcasting may limit the conditions for journalists and news outlets not affiliated with large television networks.
      • The introduction of a ‘Content Evaluation Committee’ for oversight raises concerns about self-certification mandates and potential challenges in implementation and desirability.
    • Territorial Jurisdiction Challenges and News Oversight Mechanisms
      • The inclusion of OTT content suppliers in the Bill’s scope raises jurisdictional issues between MIB and MEITy, complicating regulatory oversight in a fragmented architecture.
      • The proposal for a ‘Content Evaluation Committee’ to self-certify news programming is questioned for its feasibility, costs, and desirability.
      • Suggestions are made for leaving the design of internal oversight mechanisms to individual news outlets based on their preferences, such as an ombudsperson or a ‘Readers’ Editor.’
    • Crucial Silences on Ownership Matters
      • Similar to the TRAI paper, the Broadcasting Services (Regulation) Bill does not address issues of ownership, overlooking the need to measure cross-media and vertical ownership.
      • This omission is significant as both forms of media power can impede supplier diversity and limit the variety of perspectives in the news marketplace.
      • TRAI had previously highlighted extensive cross-media ownership between newspapers and news broadcasters, emphasizing the necessity of developing a system to monitor and regulate such arrangements.
    • Vertical Integration Concerns and Regulatory Gaps
      • The Bill overlooks concerns about telecom companies entering broadcasting, contributing to vertical integration concerns.
      • Cable and DTH distributors with indirect ownership of news broadcasters pose risks to audience access to diverse news sources.
      • Contrary to TRAI’s suggestion, the Bill does not propose an independent broadcast regulator.
      • Instead, it introduces a ‘Broadcast Advisory Council’ with potential limitations in addressing grievances and lacks autonomy, as the Central government retains ultimate decision-making authority.
    • Government Empowerment and Intrusive Mechanisms:
      • The government is granted the power to inspect broadcasters without prior notice and seize their equipment, including that issued to employees.
      • Violations of the Programme Code and Advertisement Code may result in content deletion or modification, alongside existing measures like temporary transmission cessation.
      • The Bill provides broad discretion to the government to curtail broadcasting and distribution in “public interest,” a term left undefined.
      • Such discretion raises concerns about potential external pressures on news suppliers.
      • The Bill’s intrusive mechanisms and the government’s extensive powers raise concerns about press freedom and the vulnerability of news suppliers to external pressures.
      About Draft Broadcasting Services (Regulation) Bill, 2023
    • The new draft Broadcasting Services (Regulation) Bill, 2023, aims to consolidate regulatory provisions for diverse broadcasting services, replacing the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act of 1995.
    • The bill extends its scope to cover Over-the-Top (OTT) content, digital news, and current affairs, which are currently regulated under the IT Act, 2000.
    • Additionally, it addresses emerging broadcasting technologies.
    • Key Provisions and Structure
      • The bill comprises six chapters, 48 sections, and three Schedules, offering a holistic legislative framework.
      • The legislation provides comprehensive definitions for contemporary broadcasting terms, introducing technical definitions for the first time.
      • The bill introduces ‘Content Evaluation Committees’ for self-regulation, emphasizing the industry’s role in regulating content.
      • A ‘Broadcast Advisory Council’ is established to advise the central government on violations of the programme code and advertisement code.
    • Penalties and Enforcement
      • The bill introduces statutory penalties, including advisory, warning, censure, or monetary penalties for operators and broadcasters.
      • Serious offences, such as obtaining registration with a false affidavit, may result in imprisonment and/or fines.
      • Monetary penalties and fines are tied to the financial capacity of entities, considering their investment and turnover for fairness and equity.
    • Inclusivity and Accessibility Measures
      • The bill aims to make broadcasting more inclusive by promoting the use of subtitles, audio descriptors, and sign language.
      • A provision for appointing a “Disability Grievance Officer” is included to address concerns related to disabilities.
      • Provisions are made for infrastructure sharing among broadcasting network operators and the carriage of platform services.
      • The bill streamlines the ‘Right of Way’ section to efficiently address relocation and alterations, establishing a structured dispute resolution mechanism.

    Understanding simultaneous elections

    (General Studies- Paper II) Source : TH
    In September, the Union Government established a six-member panel to explore and recommend the feasibility of holding simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha, State assemblies, and local bodies.
    • The panel is tasked with proposing specific constitutional amendments and legal changes required to enable simultaneous elections.
    • Additionally, it must provide an opinion on whether these amendments necessitate the assent of half of the State assemblies, as per Article 368.
      Key Highlights
    • Historical Context and Current Scenario
      • The first four general elections in India involved simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.
      • The subsequent separation occurred due to the advancement of Lok Sabha elections by the Congress.
      • Currently, Lok Sabha elections coincide with Assembly elections in Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Arunachal Pradesh, and Sikkim.
    • Political Push for Simultaneous Elections
      • The proposal for simultaneous elections has been actively supported by the BJP since it came to power in 2014.
      • The NITI Aayog backed the proposal in 2017, and it was mentioned in President Ram NathKovind’s address to Parliament in the following year.
      • The Law Commission released a draft report in 2018, examining legal-constitutional aspects of the proposal.
        • The Law Commission is exploring the feasibility of a common electoral roll, supporting the proposal.
      • Arguments in Favor of Simultaneous Elections
        • Simultaneous elections would reduce recurring expenditures for both State and Central governments, streamlining processes and saving public money.
        • The dense electoral cycle poses challenges to national security and law and order due to prolonged deployment of security forces.
        • Separate elections hinder development as the enforcement of the code of conduct disrupts ongoing projects, and parties prioritize populist schemes over long-term investments.
        • Simultaneous elections would decrease the role of money in elections, leading to more effective monitoring of election expenditure by the Election Commission of India (ECI).
        • ‘One nation-one election’ could reduce the divisive role of regionalism, casteism, and communalism, focusing on national issues in elections.
        • Too many elections lead to voter fatigue, and simultaneous elections could rejuvenate voter interest at the national level.
      • Arguments Against Simultaneous Elections
        • Critics view the Centre’s initiative as contrary to the federal spirit, citing inadequate consultation with constituent States, particularly those governed by non-BJP parties.
        • Simultaneous elections may sideline local and regional issues, favoring national concerns.
          • This could lead to a ‘national constituency phenomenon,’ disadvantaging regional parties and fostering regional discontent.
        • Contrary to the anticipated cost-saving benefits, simultaneous elections would necessitate substantial investments in Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) and Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail Machines (VVPAT).
          • Additionally, biennial elections and by-elections would still incur expenses.
        • Frequent elections maintain voter enthusiasm and increase accountability, as evidenced by higher voter turnout in State and local elections.
      • Legal and Constitutional Complexities
        • Implementing simultaneous elections would demand amendments to at least five articles of the Constitution, including those related to the duration and dissolution of the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.
        • Amendments necessitate a two-thirds majority in both Houses of Parliament and ratification by at least half of the State Legislatures under Article 368.
        • Given the current political landscape, obtaining such support is challenging.
        • The judicial review of amendment acts related to Centre-State relations poses a significant hurdle.
        • Complexities arise in linking general elections with local body elections due to variations in State-specific Panchayati Raj Acts and Municipal Acts.
      • Future Considerations and Challenges
        • Given the complexity, the primary focus is likely to be on synchronizing Lok Sabha and Assembly elections, requiring multiple amendments.
        • To navigate these challenges, there is a need for extensive consultation across political parties and States to formulate a viable and acceptable approach.
      Constitutional Amendments that may be needed
    • To implement simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha, State assemblies, and local bodies in India, several constitutional amendments would be necessary.
    • Here are the key constitutional amendments that may be required:
    • Duration and Dissolution of Lok Sabha (Article 83):
      • Amendment to Article 83(2) to redefine the duration and dissolution of the Lok Sabha, allowing for simultaneous elections.
    • President’s Power to Dissolve Lok Sabha (Article 85):
      • Amendment to Article 85(2) to revise the President’s power to dissolve the Lok Sabha, synchronizing it with the new framework of simultaneous elections.
    • Duration and Dissolution of State Assemblies (Article 172):
      • Amendment to Article 172(1) to redefine the duration and dissolution of State Assemblies to align with the simultaneous election model.
    • Governor’s Power to Dissolve State Assemblies (Article 174):
      • Amendment to Article 174(2) to revise the Governor’s power to dissolve State Assemblies in coordination with the simultaneous elections proposal.
    • Emergency Extension of Lok Sabha Term (Article 83):
      • Amendment to Article 83(2) regarding the extension of the Lok Sabha term in case of an Emergency under Article 352, ensuring it aligns with the simultaneous election concept.
    • Emergency Extension of State Assembly Term (Article 172):
      • Amendment to Article 172(1) regarding the extension of State Assembly term in case of an Emergency under Article 352, reflecting the simultaneous elections framework.
    • Anti-Defection Law (10th Schedule):
      • Potential amendments to the Anti-Defection Law (10th Schedule) to address issues related to dissolution, reconstitution, and simultaneous elections.
    • Judicial Review and President’s Rule (Article 356):
      • Amendments related to judicial review and the imposition of President’s Rule under Article 356, ensuring compatibility with the proposed simultaneous election structure.
    • Ratification by State Legislatures (Article 368):
      • Amendment to Article 368 to address the process of ratification by at least half of the State Legislatures, as required for constitutional amendments.

    Defence Acquisition Projects Approval (General Studies- Paper III) Source : TH
    The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), led by Defence Minister Rajnath Singh, granted initial approval for defence acquisition projects worth ₹2.23 lakh crore.
    • The approved projects aim to significantly enhance the combat capabilities of the armed forces.
      Key Highlights Key Procurements
    • Tejas Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)
      • Procurement of 97 Tejas Light Combat Aircraft (Mark 1A) for the Indian Air Force (IAF).
      • Part of the effort to boost combat capabilities amid the ongoing military standoff with China in eastern Ladakh.
    • Prachand Combat Helicopters
      • Acquisition of 156 Prachand Combat Helicopters for the Army and IAF.
    • Su-30 Fighter Fleet Upgrade
      • Approval for the Indian Air Force’s proposal to upgrade its Su-30 fighter fleet by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL).
    • Initial approval for the procurement of two types of anti-tank munitions: area denial munition (ADM) Type-2 and Type-3.
    • Acquisition and integration of automatic target tracker (ATT) and digital basaltic computer (DBC) for T-90 tanks.
    • Approval for the purchase of medium-range anti-ship missiles for the Indian Navy.
    • Emphasis on Domestic Procurement
      • The Defence Ministry highlighted that 98% of the total procurement value will be sourced from domestic industries.
      • A significant move to boost the Indian defence industry and promote ‘Aatmanirbharta’ (self-reliance) in the defence sector.
    • Strategic Significance
      • The approval is seen as crucial amid the ongoing military tensions with China, reinforcing India’s military capabilities.
      • Reduction of dependability on foreign Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) is emphasized, enhancing indigenous capabilities.
      About Defence Acquisition Council (DAC)
    • The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) is the apex decision-making body for defense procurement in India.
    • It operates under the Ministry of Defence and is responsible for formulating policies and overseeing the acquisition process of defense equipment for the armed forces.
    • The DAC was established to streamline and expedite defense acquisitions, ensuring a transparent and accountable mechanism.
    • Composition of the Defence Acquisition Council:
      • The DAC is chaired by the Defence Minister of India and includes key members such as the Chief of Defence Staff, the three armed services chiefs (Army, Navy, and Air Force), the Defence Secretary, Secretary (Defence Production), Secretary (Research and Development), and other relevant officials.
    • Functions:
      • Accord approval for AoN (Acceptance of Necessity) for Capital Acquisition Proposals.
      • Categorize acquisition proposals into:
        • ‘Buy’ Projects (outright purchase)
        • ‘Buy and Make’ projects (purchase followed by licensed production/indigenous development)
        • ‘Make’ Projects (indigenous production and R&D)
      • Provide in-principle approval of the 15 Year Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTPP) for Defence Forces.
      • Monitor the progress of major projects based on feedback from the Defence Procurement Board.

    Loss and Damage Fund cleared on Day One of COP-28 summit

    (General Studies- Paper III) Source : TH
    Member countries at COP 28 agreed to make operational a Loss and Damage (L&D) fund aimed at compensating nations already grappling with the impacts of climate change.
    • The fund will be based at the World Bank but managed by an independent secretariat.
      Key Highlights
    • Financial Commitments:
      • Financial commitments for the fund have reached nearly $250 million from various countries.
      • Notable contributions include $100 million from the host country United Arab Emirates, $100 million from Germany, $17 million from the United States, approximately $50.6 million from the United Kingdom, $10 million from Japan, and an additional $145 million from the European Union.
    • The agreement to kickstart the fund on the first day of COP 28 is seen as a positive start, generating good momentum for discussions in the coming days.
    • Delegates emphasize the need to build on this momentum and focus on concrete steps to keep global temperatures below 1.5°C.
    • World Bank as Interim Host:
      • The World Bank will serve as the “interim host” of the fund for a four-year period.
      • The fund is expected to operate in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement.
    • All developing countries are eligible to apply for funds, and every country is invited to contribute voluntarily.
    • A specific percentage is set aside for Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States.
    • The L&D fund was first announced at the conclusion of COP-27 in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, a year ago.
    • Loss and Damage Costing $1.5 Trillion in 2022
      • A study by the University of Delaware reveals that the cost of loss and damage from climate change amounted to approximately $1.5 trillion ($1,500 billion) in 2022.
      • Developing countries and some of the poorest nations experienced an average loss of about 8.3% of GDP due to climate change in 2022.
    • Concerns and Criticisms:
      • The Loss and Damage (L&D) fund, though operationalized, currently lacks specifications on how often it will be replenished.
      • Rich countries advocating for the World Bank hosting the fund are criticized for diluting financial obligations and resisting a clear finance mobilization scale.
      • The absence of a defined replenishment cycle raises questions about the long-term sustainability of the fund.
      What is COP?
    • COP refers to the Conference of the Parties, which is the supreme decision-making body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
    • It brings together representatives from countries around the world to discuss and negotiate international efforts to address climate change.
    • COP-28 is the 28th edition of the COP summit, where member countries convene to discuss climate-related issues and make decisions on global climate action.
      What is UNFCCC?
    • The UNFCCC is an international treaty that was established in 1992 with the goal of addressing climate change and its impacts on a global scale.
    • The UNFCCC sets the framework for annual COP meetings, where member countries come together to discuss and negotiate actions to address climate change.
    • The convention was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit.
      • The Earth Summit took place in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
      • This marked the adoption of the convention.
    • The original secretariat of UNFCCC was located in Geneva.
      • The secretariat was later relocated to Bonn in 1996.
    • Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement:
      • The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in 1997, was an important extension of the UNFCCC, setting binding emission reduction targets for developed countries.
      • The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015 during COP-21, is a landmark international accord that aims to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

    India set to launch its first X-Ray Polarimeter Satellite: ISRO

    (General Studies- Paper III) Source : TH
    India is set to launch its first X-Ray Polarimeter Satellite (XPoSat) to investigate the polarization of intense X-Ray sources.   Key Highlights
    • While India has established space-based X-Ray astronomy, XPoSat introduces a major value addition, moving beyond imaging, time-domain studies, and spectroscopy.
    • Orbit and Payloads:
      • XPoSat will operate in Low Earth Orbit (~650 km altitude, low inclination of approximately six degrees).
      • Carries two scientific payloads for simultaneous studies of temporal, spectral, and polarization features of bright X-Ray sources.
    • Mission Objectives:
      • Measurement of X-Ray polarization in the energy band of 8-30 keV.
      • Long-term spectral and temporal studies of cosmic X-Ray sources in the energy band of 0.8-15 keV.
    • Expected mission life is approximately five years.
    • Payloads onboard XPoSat will observe X-Ray sources during the spacecraft’s transit through Earth’s shadow, specifically during the eclipse period.
    • Primary Payload – POLIX:
      • POLIX (Polarimeter Instrument in X-rays) measures polarimetry parameters in the medium X-ray energy range (8-30 keV).
      • Developed by the Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bengaluru, with support from various ISRO centers.
    • Secondary Payload – XSPECT:
      • XSPECT (X-ray Spectroscopy and Timing) provides spectroscopic information within the energy range of 0.8-15 keV.
      • Developed by the U.R. Rao Satellite Centre (URSC), ISRO.
    • XPoSat will be launched by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota.
      What is X-ray?
    • X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than those of ultraviolet rays and longer than those of gamma rays.
    • They are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes various forms of radiant energy.
    • Discovery:
      • X-rays were discovered by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895.
      • He found that certain invisible rays had the ability to pass through solid objects and create images on a photographic plate.
    • Nature:
      • X-rays are produced when high-energy electrons strike a metal target, resulting in the release of photons with X-ray wavelengths.
      • They are characterized by their ability to penetrate materials that are opaque to visible light.
    • Significance of X-rays:
      • Medical Imaging:
        • X-rays are extensively used in medicine for diagnostic imaging.
      • Dentistry:
        • X-rays play a crucial role in dentistry for examining teeth and jaw structures
      • Industry and Security:
        • X-ray technology is employed in industrial settings for inspecting the integrity of materials, detecting defects in manufactured products, and ensuring quality control.
      • Scientific Research:
        • X-ray diffraction techniques are used in scientific research to analyze the structure of materials at the atomic and molecular levels.
      • Cancer Treatment (Radiotherapy):
        • X-rays are utilized in cancer treatment through a process known as radiotherapy.
        • High-energy X-rays are directed at cancer cells to damage their DNA and inhibit their growth.
      • Astronomy:
        • X-ray astronomy involves the observation of celestial objects emitting X-rays.
        • This has provided insights into the nature of black holes, supernovae, and other high-energy phenomena in the universe.
      • Archaeology:
        • X-rays are employed in archaeology to examine the interiors of artifacts without physically opening them.
        • This helps in preserving the integrity of historical objects.

    Air pollution causes over 2 million deaths annually in India

    (General Studies- Paper III) Source : TH
    A modelling study published in The BMJ reveals that outdoor air pollution from all sources results in 2.18 million deaths annually in India, making it the second-highest globally after China.   Key Highlights
    • Global Impact of Fossil Fuel-Related Deaths:
      • The research indicates that air pollution stemming from fossil fuel usage in industry, power generation, and transportation contributes to 5.1 million extra deaths worldwide each year.
      • Fossil fuel-related deaths account for 61% of the total estimated 8.3 million deaths globally due to ambient (outdoor) air pollution from all sources in 2019.
    • The study suggests that transitioning from fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy sources could potentially prevent a significant portion of these deaths.
    • The new estimates of fossil fuel-related deaths surpass previously reported values, emphasizing that phasing out fossil fuels may have a more substantial impact on attributable mortality than previously understood.
    • Research Team and Methodology:
      • The study involved researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany.
      • A new model was utilized to estimate all-cause and cause-specific deaths linked to fossil fuel-related air pollution.
      • Assessment of potential health benefits was conducted by considering policies replacing fossil fuels with clean, renewable energy sources.
    • Data Sources:
      • Excess deaths were assessed using data from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study, NASA satellite-based fine particulate matter, population data, and atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, and relative risk modelling for the year 2019.
    • Research Findings:
      • Four scenarios were assessed to understand the impact of phasing out fossil fuels on air pollution-related deaths globally.
      • The first scenario envisions a complete phase-out of all fossil fuel-related emission sources.
      • The second and third scenarios assume 25% and 50% reductions in exposure towards the fossil fuel phase-out.
      • The fourth scenario eliminates all anthropogenic sources, leaving only natural sources of air pollution.
    • Global Air Pollution-Related Deaths:
      • In 2019, 8.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) in ambient air.
      • Of these, 61% (5.1 million) were linked to fossil fuels.
      • Highest attributable deaths were observed in South and East Asia, particularly China (2.44 million per year) and India (2.18 million per year).
      • Most deaths (52%) were associated with conditions such as ischemic heart disease (30%), stroke (16%), chronic obstructive lung disease (16%), and diabetes (6%).
    • Potential Health Benefits of Phasing Out Fossil Fuels:
      • Phasing out fossil fuels could result in the largest absolute reductions in attributable deaths in South, Southeast, and East Asia, preventing about 3.85 million deaths annually.
      • In high-income countries heavily reliant on fossil energy, approximately 0.46 million deaths annually could be prevented by a fossil fuel phaseout.
    • Model Limitations and Uncertainty:
      • The new model yielded larger estimates than most previous studies, attributing this to considering all causes in addition to disease-specific deaths.
      • Uncertainty remains, but the study underscores the potential health and climate co-benefits of replacing fossil fuels with clean, renewable energy sources.
      What constitutes air pollution?
    • Air pollution refers to the presence of harmful substances in the air, and these can include:
      • Particulate Matter (PM):
        • 5: Fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller.
        • PM10: Inhalable particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller.
      • Ground-level Ozone (O3):
        • A major component of smog, formed by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight.
      • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2):A reddish-brown gas and a significant air pollutant.
      • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2):A colorless gas with a pungent odor, primarily emitted from burning fossil fuels containing sulfur.
      • Carbon Monoxide (CO):A colorless, odorless gas produced by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels.
      • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs):Organic chemicals that can evaporate into the air, contributing to air pollution.
      • Heavy Metals: Metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, released into the air through industrial processes.
      • Ground-level Air Toxics: Harmful air pollutants, including benzene, formaldehyde, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
      • Ammonia (NH3): A compound released from agricultural activities and industrial processes.
      • Biological Pollutants: Pollutants such as mold spores, bacteria, and viruses that can affect indoor air quality.


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