- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
- Birth and Childhood (1869-1888):
- Studies in England (1888-1893):
- Journey to South Africa (1893):
- Natal Indian Congress (1894):
- Tolstoy Farm (1910):
- Satyagraha in South Africa (1913):
- Back to India (1915):
- ChamparanSatyagrah (1917):
- Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922):
- Kheda Satyagraha (1918):
- Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918):
- Rowlatt Act and Protest:
- Non-Cooperation Movement (1920):
- Salt March (1930):
- Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931):
- Communal Award (1932):
- Poona Pact (1932):
- Gandhi’s Resignation from INC (1934):
- Quit India Movement (1942):
- Post-Independence Efforts (1947-1948):
- Literary works of Gandhiji:
- Navajivan (1919-1932):
- Indian Opinion (1904-1915):
- Unto This Last (1908):
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Birth and Childhood (1869-1888):
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, a coastal town in Gujarat, India.
- He was born into a devout Hindu family and was deeply influenced by his mother’s religious
- Gandhi’s early education was in Porbandar and later in Rajkot. He was a diligent student but relatively
Studies in England (1888-1893):
- At the age of 18, Gandhi left for London to study
- In London, he was exposed to Western culture and ideologies, and he also became involved in the vegetarian and theosophical
- Gandhi completed his law degree and became a barrister, qualifying to practice law in
Journey to South Africa (1893):
- In 1893, Gandhi was offered a legal job in South Africa. He moved to Durban, South Africa, with his family.
- His experiences in South Africa exposed him to the harsh realities of racial discrimination and prejudice, both against Indians and native Africans.
Natal Indian Congress (1894):
- In 1894, Gandhi founded the Natal Indian Congress to advocate for the rights and welfare of the Indian community in South Africa.
- He began using the principles of nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience as tools for social and political
- Gandhi also launched a newspaper called ‘Indian Opinion’ in
- This newspaper became a platform to express grievances, educate the community, and advocate for Indian
- ‘Indian Opinion’ played a crucial role in raising awareness about the issues faced by Indians in South
Tolstoy Farm (1910):
- To foster the spirit of Satyagraha, Gandhi established the Tolstoy Farm in
- This farm served as a communal living space for satyagrahis (those who practiced Satyagraha) and their families.
- It was a place for training in nonviolent resistance and self-sufficiency.
Satyagraha in South Africa (1913):
- In 1913, Gandhi led a campaign against the South African government’s discriminatory laws, including the requirement for Indians to carry identification
- This campaign, known as the “Great March” or “Satyagraha in South Africa,” marked a turning point in his advocacy for civil
Back to India (1915):
- In 1915, Gandhi returned to India, bringing with him the principles of nonviolent resistance he had developed in South
- On the solicitation of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a respected Indian leader and political mentor, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in
- Gandhi’s return was facilitated by C.F. Andrews, a British friend and supporter of Gandhi, who was also known as “Deenbandhu” (Friend of the Poor).
- Under Gokhale’s influence, Gandhi deepened his understanding of Indian issues and the intricacies of Indian
- Champaran Satyagraha was the first civil disobedience movement organized by Mahatma Gandhi in
- It was initiated due to the plea of Rajkumar Shukla, who requested Gandhi’s assistance in addressing the issues faced by indigo planters in
- European planters were enforcing the Tinkatiya system, which required farmers to allocate 3/20 of their land for indigo cultivation, causing great hardship to the
- Mahatma Gandhi launched a campaign of passive resistance or civil disobedience against the oppressive indigo cultivation
- Through his efforts and negotiations, Gandhi was able to convince the British authorities to abolish the Tinkatiya system after the formation of ChamparanAgararian
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922):
- Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920, urging Indians to boycott British goods, institutions, and
- This mass movement gained widespread support but was suspended after the violent Chauri Chaura incident in 1922.
Kheda Satyagraha (1918):
- Kheda Satyagraha was the first non-cooperation movement organized by Mahatma Gandhi in
- It took place in the Kheda district of Gujarat, India.
- The people of Kheda were facing a severe drought in 1918, which led to crop failure and economic hardship.
- Due to the economic distress and the added burden of high taxes imposed by the British, the peasants in Kheda were unable to pay their
- Mahatma Gandhi extended his support to the peasants and advocated withholding revenue as a form of protest against the oppressive tax policies.
- After a period of resistance and negotiations, the British government agreed to form an agreement with the peasants.
- As a result, the taxes were suspended for the years 1919 and 1920, and all confiscated properties were returned to the
Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918):
- The Ahmedabad Mill Strike occurred in 1918 and was a significant labor dispute between mill owners and workers in Ahmedabad,
- The primary issue was the discontinuation of the plague bonus, which had been an additional payment to workers during a plague
- Workers demanded a 50% increase in wages, while mill owners were only willing to concede a 20%
- Under the leadership of Anusuiya Sarabai, workers sought the support of Mahatma Gandhi to advocate for their cause.
- Gandhi, during this movement, undertook his first hunger strike as a form of nonviolent
- Gandhi encouraged the workers to go on strike without resorting to
- Gandhi went on a fast until death to pressure the mill owners to address the workers’
- Ultimately, the mill owners agreed to submit the issue to a tribunal, and as a result of the negotiations, workers received a 35% wage
Rowlatt Act and Protest:
- The British response to Indian nationalists’ demands was the Rowlatt Act, which aimed to suppress their
- Gandhi called for a nationwide Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act, leading to the Rowlatt
- This movement catapulted Gandhi to national leadership as he protested against the unjust Rowlatt
- The infamous Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on April 13, 1919, where British troops killed unarmed Indian protesters, intensified the
- Gandhi, witnessing the violence escalating, called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha on April 18, 1919, to prevent further bloodshed.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920):
- Gandhi advised the leaders of the Indian National Congress to initiate the Non- Cooperation Movement, which aimed to support the Khilafat
- At the Nagpur Congress session in 1920, the program for non-cooperation was officially
- However, the Chauri Chaura incident occurred in 1922, where protesters turned violent and attacked police. In response, Gandhi called off the non-cooperation movement as it deviated from his principles of
- Following the suspension of the movement, Gandhi shifted his focus to social reform work and reduced his involvement in political
Salt March (1930):
- Gandhi announced his intention to lead a Salt March to break the British monopoly on the manufacture and sale of
- The march began from his ashram in Sabarmati and extended to the coastal town of Dandi in
- Along with 78 followers, Gandhi produced salt from seawater, symbolizing defiance of the salt law and marking the start of the Civil Disobedience
- This movement aimed to challenge various unjust British laws through nonviolent
Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931):
- In 1931, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed, leading to the suspension of civil disobedience and the release of political prisoners.
- Gandhi met with Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India, to negotiate terms for ending the
- Gandhi agreed to attend the second Round Table Conference in London as the representative of the Indian National Congress (INC).
Communal Award (1932):
- The Communal Award was introduced by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald in August
- It expanded the concept of separate electorates to include depressed classes and other
- The main objective was to maintain separate electorates for Muslims, Sikhs, and Europeans, further dividing the Indian population along communal
Poona Pact (1932):
- The Poona Pact was an agreement reached between B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi in response to the Communal Award.
- It aimed to secure political representation for depressed classes and marginalized communities in
- Both leaders came to a mutual understanding, and the Poona Pact helped avoid further communal division.
Gandhi’s Resignation from INC (1934):
- Mahatma Gandhi resigned from the Indian National Congress (INC) in
- This decision was due to his disagreements with the INC’s positions on various
- Gandhi returned to active politics during the Lucknow Session of Congress in 1936, which was presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Quit India Movement (1942):
- The outbreak of World War II in 1939 heightened tensions in India, and the failure of the Cripps Mission in 1942 added to the discontent.
- On August 8, 1942, during the Bombay Session of the All-India Congress Committee, Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement.
- Gandhi’s central demand was for the immediate departure of the British from India.
- The iconic slogan of “Do or Die” was issued by Mahatma Gandhi during the Quit India
- He called for a mass movement characterized by nonviolence as the means to achieve this goal.
- The movement aimed to achieve complete independence for
- Arrest of Leaders:
- The British responded by arresting most of the major leaders of the Indian National Congress, including Mahatma Gandhi
- The British government hoped that by detaining the leaders, they could suppress the
Post-Independence Efforts (1947-1948):
- After India gained independence in 1947, Gandhi focused on communal harmony and worked tirelessly to prevent religious violence.
- He advocated for the fair treatment of minorities and the Dalits (formerly known as “untouchables”).
- Assassination (January 30, 1948):
- Tragically, on January 30, 1948, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, in New
- His death sent shockwaves throughout India and the world, but his principles of nonviolence continued to inspire future
- Legacy and Influence:
- Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence (Satyagraha) and civil disobedience had a profound impact on the global civil rights
- Figures like Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States and Nelson Mandela in South Africa drew inspiration from Gandhi’s methods of resistance.
Literary works of Gandhiji:
- Hind Swaraj (1909):
- One of Gandhi’s earliest and most significant works, “Hind Swaraj” (also known as “Indian Home Rule”), is considered the intellectual blueprint of India’s freedom
- Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth (1925):
- Gandhi’s autobiography, “The Story of My Experiments with Truth,” provides a deeply personal account of his life and his philosophical and political
- Satyagraha in South Africa (1928):
- This work chronicles Gandhi’s experiences and struggles during his time in South Africa, where he developed and refined the principles of satyagraha and nonviolent resistance.
- Young India (1919-1932):
- Gandhi edited and published the weekly newspaper “Young India” in English during a significant period in the Indian freedom struggle.
- Hind Swaraj (1909):
- “Navajivan” was a Gujarati monthly magazine edited by Gandhi. It also had a Hindi edition.
Indian Opinion (1904-1915):
- During his time in South Africa, Gandhi published and edited the newspaper “Indian Opinion,” which advocated for the rights of the Indian community and promoted his principles of nonviolent
Unto This Last (1908):
- Gandhi wrote a paraphrase in Gujarati of John Ruskin’s essay, “Unto This Last,” which focused on economic and social issues.