CURRENT AFFAIRS – 22/09/2023

CURRENT AFFAIRS – 22/09/2023

CURRENT AFFAIRS – 22/09/2023

CURRENT AFFAIRS – 22/09/2023

State of Working India 2023

(General Studies- Paper II)

Source : The Indian Express

The “State of Working India 2023” report by Azim Premji University’s Centre for Sustainable Employment highlights significant trends in India’s employment and workforce landscape in 2021-22.

  • The report examines unemployment rates, women’s workforce participation, intergenerational mobility, and caste-wise workforce dynamics.

Key Highlights

  • Unemployment Rates:
    • Overall unemployment rate decreased from 8.7% in 2017-18 to 6.6% in 2021-22.
    • However, 42% of Indian graduates under 25 were unemployed in 2021-22.
  • Women’s Workforce Participation:
    • Post-pandemic, 60% of women were self-employed, compared to 50% before the pandemic.
    • This increase in participation was accompanied by a decline in self-employment earnings, down to 85% of pre-pandemic levels.
  • Intergenerational Mobility:
    • There has been an upward trend in intergenerational mobility.
    • The trend is weaker for workers from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes compared to those from general castes.
  • Unemployment by Education and Age:
    • Among graduates under 25, the unemployment rate is 42.3%, while for those with higher secondary education in the same age group, it’s 21.4%.
    • Unemployment rates decrease with lower educational qualifications.
  • Factors Influencing Graduate Unemployment:
    • Graduates may have higher job aspirations and wage expectations, potentially leading to unemployment if suitable jobs are not available.
    • Graduates often come from high-income households, allowing them the luxury to stay unemployed.
  • Caste-wise Workforce Dynamics:
    • The share of Scheduled Caste (SC) workers in casual wage work has reduced significantly since 1983.
    • In 2021, 40% of SC workers were involved in casual employment, compared to 13% of general caste workers.
    • Around 22% of SC workers were regular wage workers, while 32% of general caste workers held such positions.
  • Unemployment Rate According to Periodic Labour Force Survey 2021-22:
    • The unemployment rate in India stood at 4.1% during this period.
  • Nature of Economic Growth:
    • Economic growth in India hasn’t guaranteed employment.
    • With each percentage increase in GDP, the capacity to generate jobs has systematically declined.
    • Labor force movement out of agriculture has not translated into salaried employment; instead, there’s a trend toward informal salaried work.
  • Increasingly, good salaried jobs with contracts and benefits are becoming less prominent.

About Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)

The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) is an important survey conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in India.

  • The PLFS was launched in April 2017 by the NSO.
  • It was initiated as part of efforts to provide more accurate and timely data on employment and unemployment in India.
  • Objectives: The PLFS is designed to achieve two primary objectives for the measurement of employment and unemployment:
    • Dynamics in Labour Force Participation and Employment Status:
      • One of its objectives is to measure the dynamics in labor force participation and employment status in a short time interval of three months.
      • This aspect of the survey focuses specifically on urban areas and is known as the Current Weekly Status (CWS).
    • Labour Force Estimates:
      • The second objective is to measure labour force estimates on key parameters for both rural and urban areas.
      • This includes measuring employment and unemployment in both “usual status” (reflecting the typical employment status of individuals) and “Current Weekly Status” (reflecting employment status during a specific week).

About National Statistical Office (NSO)

The primary mandate of the NSO is to compile and publish reliable and comprehensive statistical data on various sectors of the Indian economy and society.

  • In May 2019, the Central Government of India decided to merge the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) and the Central Statistics Office (CSO).
    • Both of which were previously separate entities operating under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
  • The merger resulted in the establishment of a new overarching entity known as the National Statistical Office (NSO).
  • The NSO serves as the nodal agency responsible for the planned development of the statistical system in India.
  • It plays a central role in coordinating and overseeing statistical activities across the country.
  • Key Surveys and Censuses:
    • The NSO conducts several important surveys and censuses, including the Census of India (conducted every ten years), the National Sample Survey (NSS), the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS), and the Economic Census.

Northeast’s mithun gets ‘food animal’ tag

(General Studies- Paper I)

Source : The Indian Express

Mithun, a culturally significant bovine species found in India’s Northeastern states, is now recognized as a ‘food animal’ by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).

  • This recognition opens up opportunities for farmers and tribal communities to commercially benefit from the sale and processing of Mithun meat.

Key Highlights

  • Mithun, scientifically known as Bos frontalis, is a ruminant species belonging to the Bovidae family.
  • It is native to Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram.
  • Traditionally, the slaughter of Mithuns is reserved for special occasions, including festivals and election feasts.
  • Training for Farmers:
    • Farmers in the region, who have been rearing Mithuns for generations, are now receiving training in farming practices and meat processing.
    • The training includes measures to protect and care for Mithuns, such as fencing enclosures, creating shelters, and vaccinations.
  • Economic Potential:
    • Adult Mithuns weigh between 400 and 650 kg.
    • A mature Mithun can be sold for Rs 2 lakh or more, and its meat can fetch Rs 300 per kg.
    • Previously, Mithun meat was only sold for special occasions and within limited local areas.
  • Low Input Costs:
    • Mithuns are traditionally semi-domesticated and raised in a free-range forest ecosystem.
    • They require minimal input costs, primarily salt, as they graze freely in community forests.
  • Recognition and Business Potential:
    • The animal’s striking resemblance to cows has garnered political attention in the past.
    • Driven by its traditional economic value and low input requirements, efforts were made to recognize Mithun as a food animal.
  • Government Initiatives:
    • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) launched the M-ANITRA app to facilitate Mithun farming transactions.
    • Loans for Mithun farming and an insurance scheme were also introduced.
  • Challenges and Conservation:
  • While efforts to promote Mithun meat for commercial sale are ongoing, conservation of the species remains a concern.
  • Conservation efforts and increased demand for Mithun products may align to preserve traditional practices and cultural significance.

Aadhaar not mandatory for entry-level admissions in private schools

(General Studies- Paper II)

Aadhaar not mandatory for entry-level admissions in private schools: High Court

Source : TH

The Delhi High Court has ruled on a case involving the mandatory requirement of Aadhaar for admission to entry-level classes in private schools under various categories, such as economically weaker sections (EWS), disadvantaged groups (DG), and children with special needs (CWSN).

  • The court upheld an interim order suspending the government’s circulars that mandated Aadhaar for these admissions.

Key Highlights

  • Court Decision:
    • On September 13, a Bench of the Delhi High Court, upheld an interim order passed by a single-judge Bench.
    • The single-judge Bench had previously stated that the circulars mandating Aadhaar for admission were “prima facie in conflict with constitutional provisions.”
  • Government’s Defense:
  • Practical Purpose:
    • The government argued that the requirement of a child’s Aadhaar number served a practical purpose by preventing duplicate applications and ensuring accurate identification.
  • Compliance with the Right to Education Act:
    • The government contended that this requirement did not violate a child’s right to free and compulsory education under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009.
  • Modernizing Admission Process:
    • The circulars were seen as a policy initiative aimed at modernizing the admission process for EWS/DG category students in private, unaided recognized schools.
  • Court’s Decision Rationale:
    • The Bench, led by the Chief Justice, refused to interfere with the interim order.
    • The court stated that the interim order was “completely in consonance” with the Supreme Court’s 2017 verdict in the Justice (Retd.) K.S. Puttaswamy case, which recognized the Right to Privacy as a fundamental right under the Constitution.

About “Right to Privacy” as a fundamental right

  • The recognition of the “Right to Privacy” as a fundamental right under the Constitution of India is a significant legal and constitutional development.
  • This recognition acknowledges that individuals have a fundamental right to privacy that is protected by the Constitution, and it places constraints on how the government and other entities can collect, use, and share personal information.
  • Case Leading to Recognition:
    • The landmark case that resulted in the recognition of the Right to Privacy as a fundamental right in India is the “Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) andAnr. vs. Union of India and Ors.” case, commonly known as the “Aadhaar case.”
    • This case was heard by a nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court of India in 2017.
  • The case revolved around the legality of the Aadhaar program, a biometric-based identification system used by the Indian government for various purposes, including social welfare, financial services, and identity verification.
  • The central issue in the case was whether the Right to Privacy is a fundamental right protected under the Indian Constitution.
  • The petitioners argued that privacy is an inherent and integral part of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • Judgment:
    • In a unanimous decision, the nine-judge bench ruled that the Right to Privacy is indeed a fundamental right protected under the Indian Constitution.
    • The judgment emphasized that privacy is a constitutionally protected value that is essential to the preservation of personal liberty and human dignity.
  • Implications:
    • The recognition of the Right to Privacy as a fundamental right has far-reaching implications for various aspects of Indian law and policy.
    • This is more so in the areas of data protection, surveillance, and the collection and use of personal information by the government and private entities.

About The Aadhaar Act

The Aadhaar Act, officially known as the “Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits, and Services) Act, 2016,” is a significant piece of legislation in India that governs the Aadhaar system.

  • The Aadhaar system is a unique biometric identification system that assigns a 12-digit Aadhaar number to residents of India based on their biometric and demographic information.
  • The primary objectives of the Act include:
    • Providing every resident of India with a unique Aadhaar number.
    • Establishing a mechanism for authentication of identity for various services and benefits.
    • Promoting efficiency, transparency, and targeted delivery of government subsidies, benefits, and services.
    • Preventing leakages and fraudulent activities in the distribution of subsidies and benefits.
  • Key Provisions of the Aadhaar Act:
    • Aadhaar Number:
      • The Act authorizes the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to issue Aadhaar numbers to residents.
      • These numbers serve as proof of identity and can be used for various purposes.
    • Biometric and Demographic Data:
      • The Act allows the collection of biometric and demographic data from residents for the purpose of issuing Aadhaar numbers.
    • Authentication:
      • It provides for the authentication of Aadhaar numbers to verify the identity of individuals for availing various services, such as opening bank accounts, obtaining mobile connections, and receiving government benefits.
    • Voluntary Enrollment:
      • While Aadhaarenrollment is voluntary, it is required for certain government services, subsidies, and benefits.
      • However, the Act prohibits denial of services for the lack of an Aadhaar number.
    • Privacy and Security:
      • The Act includes provisions to protect the privacy and security of individuals’ Aadhaar data.
      • It establishes safeguards for the storage and use of this data.
    • Disclosure of Information:
      • The Act restricts the sharing of an individual’s Aadhaar information, except for specific purposes mentioned in the Act.
      • It prohibits the sharing of biometric data.
    • Penalties:
      • The Act specifies penalties for unauthorized access, disclosure, or use of Aadhaar data.
      • It also provides for the appointment of an adjudicating officer to inquire into violations.
    • Grievance Redressal:
      • It establishes a mechanism for residents to file complaints and seek redressal for issues related to Aadhaar, including authentication failures and data breaches.

U.N.’s Climate Ambition Summit

(General Studies- Paper III)

China, U.S. and India, top in emissions, absent at Climate Ambition Summit

Source : TH

The Climate Ambition Summit (CAS) in New York, part of the United Nations General Assembly, took place on September 21.

  • Notably absent from the summit were major economies China, the United States, and India, which collectively account for about 42% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Key Highlights

  • The CAS aimed to showcase leaders who have credible actions, policies, and plans to address climate change and keep the 1.5°C goal of the Paris Agreement alive.
  • Low Participation
    • Despite about 100 heads of state responding to Secretary-General Antonio Guterres’ call to ramp up climate action, only representatives from 34 states and 7 institutions were given speaking slots at the summit.
    • Major absentees included China, the United States, and India, while some neighboring countries like Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Pakistan were on the list.
  • Criteria for Participation
    • Countries needed to meet specific criteria to secure a speaking slot, including presenting updated pre-2030 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), net-zero targets, energy transition plans, fossil fuel phase-out plans, renewable energy targets, Green Climate Fund pledges, and adaptation and resilience plans.
    • All main emitters and G-20 governments were encouraged to commit to presenting more ambitious economy-wide NDCs with absolute emissions cuts by 2025.
  • India’s Climate Pledges
    • India last updated its climate pledges in 2022, including reducing emissions intensity by 45% from 2005 levels by 2030 and increasing renewable energy in the power sector.
    • Prime Minister Narendra Modi also committed to achieving net-zero emissions by 2070.
    • Some analysts suggest India has committed more than its fair share to climate action, given its low per capita emissions.

About U.N.’s Climate Ambition Summit

  • The primary objective of the Climate Ambition Summit is to bring together world leaders, governments, and other stakeholders to enhance global climate ambition and action.
  • It serves as a platform for countries to showcase their commitments, actions, and strategies to combat climate change and meet the goals of the Paris Agreement.
  • The summit is typically hosted by the United Nations, particularly during the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) sessions.
  • Countries are expected to present their updated climate action plans, known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), and share their progress in reducing emissions and transitioning to renewable energy sources.

About India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are a set of climate action targets and commitments that India has outlined as its contribution to the global effort to combat climate change.

  • Emission Reduction Targets:
    • India’s NDCs include a commitment to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP (gross domestic product) by 33-35% by the year 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
    • Emission intensity refers to the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced per unit of economic output.
  • Renewable Energy Goals:
    • India has set ambitious targets for expanding its renewable energy capacity.
    • As part of its NDCs, India aims to achieve 40% of its total energy capacity from renewable energy sources by 2030.
    • This includes solar, wind, and other forms of clean energy.
  • Afforestation and Carbon Sinks:
    • India has committed to creating a carbon sink by increasing its forest and tree cover.
    • The NDCs include a target to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2e) through afforestation and reforestation activities by 2030.
  • Sustainable Agriculture and Adaptation:
    • India’s NDCs emphasize the importance of sustainable agriculture practices and climate-resilient agricultural systems.
    • The country aims to improve the resilience of its agriculture sector to the impacts of climate change.
  • Long-Term Vision:
    • In addition to its 2030 targets, India has communicated a long-term vision of achieving net-zero emissions by the year 2070.
    • This represents a commitment to balance emissions with carbon removal measures.

India’s revised Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)

India’s revised Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), was announced at the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Glasgow, United Kingdom.

  • These updated targets, referred to as the “Panchamrit” or five nectar elements of India’s climate action, represent a significant step towards achieving India’s long-term goal of reaching net-zero emissions by 2070.
  • Key Details:
    • Emissions Intensity Reduction:
      • India commits to reducing the emissions intensity of its GDP (gross domestic product) by 45% by 2030 compared to the 2005 level.
      • This reduction reflects the country’s efforts to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions.
    • Renewable Energy Capacity:
      • India aims to achieve about 50% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.
      • This target underscores India’s commitment to expanding its renewable energy infrastructure, including solar, wind, and other clean energy sources.
    • Transition to Cleaner Energy:
      • The updated NDC serves as a framework for India’s transition to cleaner energy sources over the period from 2021 to 2030.
      • This transition is crucial for reducing the country’s reliance on fossil fuels and promoting sustainable energy practices.
    • Promoting Sustainable Lifestyles:
      • India’s updated NDC emphasizes the promotion of a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditional values of conservation and moderation.
      • It calls for a mass movement for “LIFE” (Lifestyle for Environment) as a key strategy for combatting climate change.
    • Common but Differentiated Responsibilities:
      • India’s revised NDC takes into account the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” (CBDR-RC), recognizing the varying levels of responsibility and capacity among nations to address climate change.

Bharatanatyam exponent SarojaVaidyanathan passes away

(General Studies- Paper I)

Saroja Vaidyanathan, Bharatanatyam dancer, passes away

Source : TH

Bharatanatyam dancer SarojaVaidyanathan, known for her significant contributions to the world of classical dance, passed away at her residence in New Delhi.

  • She was 86 years old and had been battling cancer.
  • The classical dancer had celebrated her 86th birthday on September 19.

About SarojaVaidyanathan

  • SarojaVaidyanathan received the prestigious Padma Shri award in 2002 for her contributions to the arts.
  • In 2013, she was honored with the Padma Bhushan, one of India’s highest civilian awards, in recognition of her outstanding achievements.
  • Her extensive body of work included 10 full-length ballets and nearly 2,000 choreographies in the fields of Bharatanatyam and Carnatic music.
  • One of her most enduring legacies is the establishment of Ganesa Natyalaya, a prominent classical dance school located in New Delhi.
  • The school played a crucial role in preserving and promoting the traditional art form of Bharatanatyam.

About Bharatanatyam

  • Bharatanatyam is one of the oldest and most revered classical dance forms of India.
  • It originated in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and is known for its rich history, intricate movements, and expressive storytelling.
  • The name “Bharatanatyam” is a combination of several words: “Bhava” (expression), “Raga” (musical melody), “Tala” (rhythm), and “Natya” (drama), highlighting its emphasis on these elements.
  • Bharatanatyam, a classical Indian dance form, has its theoretical base rooted in the ancient Sanskrit Hindu text known as the “Natya Shastra.”
  • This text, authored by Bharata Muni, is a comprehensive treatise on performing arts and is considered one of the earliest works on dramaturgy and aesthetics.
  • Temple Carvings:
    • The development of Bharatanatyam can be traced through temple carvings, particularly in temples of South India.
    • Carvings and sculptures dating from the 6th to 9th centuries CE, found in temples like the Shiva temple of Kanchipuram, depict dance poses and postures that resemble Bharatanatyam movements.
    • These carvings provide historical evidence of the dance’s evolution during the first millennium CE.
  • The classical Tamil epic “Silappatikaram,” believed to have been composed in the 2nd century CE, contains a direct reference to the dance form known as Sadir.
  • Bharatanatyam is a storytelling dance form where performers use intricate hand gestures (mudras), facial expressions, and body movements to convey stories, themes, and emotions from Hindu mythology and classical literature.
  • Mudras are symbolic hand gestures used in Bharatanatyam to represent various elements, characters, and emotions.
    • There are numerous mudras, each with its own meaning.
  • Bharatanatyam is accompanied by Carnatic music, a classical music style from South India.

Govt launches AI chatbot for PM-Kisan scheme

(General Studies- Paper II)

Source : The Indian Express

The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare has introduced an artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot to enhance the efficiency and reach of the PM-KISAN (Pradhan MantriKisanSamman Nidhi) scheme.

  • This marks the first integration of an AI chatbot with a major government scheme.

Key Highlights

  • The AI chatbot was inaugurated by Minister of State for Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare.
  • The chatbot aims to offer prompt, clear, and accurate responses to farmers’ queries, improving accessibility and support for PM-KISAN beneficiaries.
  • The development of the chatbot received support from the EkStep Foundation and Bhashini.
  • The initial phase of the AI chatbot will assist farmers in obtaining information related to their application status, payment details, ineligibility status, and other scheme-related updates.
  • Accessible through the PM-KISAN mobile application, the chatbot is integrated with Bhashini, which provides multilingual support to accommodate linguistic and regional diversity among beneficiaries.
  • Currently available in English, Hindi, Bengali, Odia, and Tamil, the chatbot will soon support all 22 official languages of India.
  • Benefits and Significance
    • The introduction of the AI chatbot is expected to enhance transparency and empower farmers with a user-friendly platform for seeking information and support related to the PM-KISAN scheme.
    • By integrating advanced technology, the government aims to streamline communication and provide real-time assistance to beneficiaries.

About The “Bhashini Initiative”

  • The “Bhashini Initiative” is a government platform aimed at breaking language barriers in India by providing access to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) resources in various Indian languages.
  • This initiative is designed to make AI and NLP technologies available in the public domain for use by Indian micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), startups, and individual innovators.
  • The primary goal of the Bhashini Initiative is to enable developers to create digital services and applications that are accessible to all Indians in their native languages.
  • The mission aims to ensure that as more Indians connect to the internet, they are able to access global content in their own languages.
  • Bhashini Platform is a part of the National Language Translation Mission.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Electronics and IT

About PM-KISAN scheme

  • The Pradhan MantriKisanSamman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) scheme is a central government initiative in India aimed at providing financial support to small and marginal farmers.
  • Under the scheme, eligible farmers receive direct income support of Rs. 6,000 per year.
  • This amount is distributed in three equal installments of Rs. 2,000 each, credited directly into the bank accounts of the beneficiaries.

Madhya Pradesh CM unveils 108-ft statue of AdiShankaracharya

(General Studies- Paper I)

Source : The Indian Express

Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan unveiled a 108-foot-tall statue of the 8th-century spiritual leader AdiShankaracharya in Omkareshwar town.

  • The statue is called the ‘Statue of Oneness’ and depicts Shankaracharya as a 12-year-old child.
  • It is placed on a 75-foot platform and weighs 100 tonnes.
  • The statue was conceptualized by an Indian team of artists, sculptors, and engineers, with the metal casting done in China’s Nanchang city.

Key Highlights

  • Foundation Stone for ‘AdvaitLok’ Museum Laid
    • During the same event, Chief Minister Chouhan also laid the foundation stone for aRs 2,200-crore ‘AdvaitLok,’ which will include a museum.
    • The museum will feature a 3D hologram projection gallery, nine exhibition galleries, an indoor wide-screen theater, and a cultural boat ride called ‘Advaita Narmada Vihar.’
    • The museum will provide visitors with an audio-visual journey through the teachings of Shankaracharya.

About AdiShankaracharya

  • AdiShankaracharya, also known as AdiShankara, was an Indian philosopher and theologian who lived in the 8th century CE.
  • He is one of the most prominent figures in the history of Indian philosophy and is credited with reviving and consolidating the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta (non-dualistic school of thought).
  • Birth and Early Life:
    • AdiShankaracharya was born in Kaladi, Kerala, India, around 788 CE.
  • Teachings:
    • Shankaracharya’s main philosophical teachings revolved around the concept of Advaita Vedanta, which emphasizes the unity of the individual soul (Atman) with the ultimate reality (Brahman).
    • He argued that the material world is an illusion (Maya) and that the true nature of reality is non-dual consciousness.
  • Travel and Debate:
    • AdiShankaracharya is known for his extensive travels across the Indian subcontinent.
    • He engaged in philosophical debates with scholars from various schools of thought, including Buddhism, Jainism, and other Hindu sects.
    • His debates and writings were instrumental in establishing Advaita Vedanta as a dominant philosophical tradition.
  • Writings:
    • Shankaracharya composed numerous commentaries on ancient Indian scriptures, including the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Brahma Sutras.
    • His commentaries, also known as bhashyas, are considered authoritative texts in the Advaita Vedanta tradition.
    • Brahmasutrabhasya:
      • AdiShankaracharya’s commentary on the Brahma Sutra is known as the “Brahmasutrabhasya.”
      • The Brahma Sutra is a foundational text in Vedanta philosophy that discusses the nature of Brahman (the ultimate reality) and the path to spiritual liberation (moksha).
      • Shankaracharya’s commentary is considered the oldest surviving commentary on the Brahma Sutra and is highly regarded for its depth and clarity.
    • Monastic Order:
      • AdiShankaracharya is credited with establishing four monastic centers (mathas) in different regions of India.
      • These mathas serve as centers for the study and propagation of Advaita Vedanta.
      • The four mathas are located in Sringeri (Karnataka), Dwarka (Gujarat), Puri (Odisha), and Badrinath (Uttarakhand).
    • AdiShankaracharya’s Disappearance:
      • According to tradition, AdiShankaracharya took Samadhi (a yogic practice of consciously leaving the physical body) at a young age, believed to be around 32, in the town of Kedarnath, located in the Himalayas.
      • His exact date of death remains a subject of debate among scholars.