Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
Today marks 77 years since Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose’s death anniversary. On his death anniversary, the country pays its homage to one of the greatest leaders of modern India.
About Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
- Birth and Early Life:
- Birth: Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Odisha, India, in a well-educated and politically active family.
- Education: He completed his early education in Cuttack and later pursued his higher studies in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Cambridge University in the United Kingdom.
- In the early years, Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply influenced by the writings and teachings of Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna.
- In 1920, Bose successfully passed the civil service examination, marking an achievement in his academic pursuits.
- In April 1921, upon learning about the intensifying nationalist movement and the call for freedom in India, Bose made a momentous decision.
- He chose to resign from his candidacy for the civil service and promptly returned to India to join the growing movement for Indian independence.
Leadership in the Indian National Congress:
- Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement, Bose plunged into the struggle for independence.
- He joined the Indian National Congress and soon emerged as a dynamic leader with a distinct approach.
- He became the president of the All India Youth Congress in 1928 and advocated for more radical approaches to attaining freedom.
- Bose was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress in 1938 and 1939.
- In 1939, Bose resigned from the presidency of the Indian National Congress due to differences with the dominant faction.
- He established the Forward Bloc, a radical faction within the Congress, with the aim of garnering support from disenchanted youth and promoting a more aggressive struggle for independence.
The Great Escape:
- During World War II, Bose saw an opportunity to use the geopolitical situation to India’s advantage.
- He sought assistance from Axis powers and escaped house arrest in Calcutta, making a daring journey to Germany and later to Japan.
- In Tokyo, he established the Azad Hind Radio, through which he addressed the Indian masses and rallied them against British rule.
The Azad Hind Fauj or the Indian National Army:
- Rash Behari Bose, an Indian revolutionary who had escaped from India and had been living in Japan for many years, set up the Indian independence league with the support of Indians living in the countries of south-east Asia.
- In 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose came to Singapore to lead the Indian Independence League and rebuild the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj).
- On 21 October 1943, a historic moment in India’s struggle for independence occurred when Subhas Chandra Bose, proclaimed the establishment of the provisional government of independent India, known as Azad Hind, in Singapore.
- This government was formed to function on behalf of the people of India, aiming to achieve complete freedom from British rule.
Key Dates and Events:
- 1897: Born on January 23 in Cuttack, Odisha.
- 1921: Resigned from the Indian Civil Service to join the nationalist movement.
- 1928: Became president of the All India Youth Congress.
- 1939: Formed the Forward Bloc within the Indian National Congress.
- 1942: Escaped house arrest and established the Azad Hind Radio.
- 1943: Formed the Indian National Army (INA) in collaboration with Axis powers.
- 1945: Mysterious death on August 18 in an airplane crash in Taiwan.